Types of Cyber Security Attacks and Solution to Prevent Them

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Types of Cyber Attacks and Prevent them

Cybersecurity is more crucial than ever in today’s environment. Having a reliable security solution is crucial given organizations’ constantly expanding risks.

Cybersecurity is a genuine issue that affects everyone; there is no getting around it. There is no difference between an individual and an organization. There have been several changes in security threats since the internet’s launch. Malicious attacks can range in intensity from minimal annoyances to disastrous ones, and you can be sure they’ll continue if the internet does.

However, despite how frightening it may seem, several common security risks can be identified and prevented. The sorts of security dangers and attacks that individuals are now exposed to, as well as defenses against them, will be discussed in this article.

Outline of Cybersecurity

In simple terms, cybersecurity is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and software from digital or virtual threats. These cyber-attacks frequently get access to, change, or even delete important information, forcing users to pay money or unintentionally disrupting regular business operations.

Given the advancements in these attacks and the growing trend of technology and its tools, it is imperative to implement robust cybersecurity security measures.

What Exactly is a Cyber Attack?

An effort to maliciously enter other systems to render them useless, steal data, or carry out some other horrible act is known as a cyber-attack. A cyberattack’s purposeful objective is frequently to hold the victims for ransom. The attackers always employ advanced methods to hack other computer systems, despite the ongoing measures to contain the cyber-attacks.

Some of the cyberattacks that hackers employ to target their victims include the following:


Phishing includes several frauds that can deceive users into disclosing passwords or other private information. This kind of cyber threat uses social engineering techniques and technology to get the target to provide sensitive information that would be misused fraudulently.

For example, a PIN or password could be requested if the attacker calls, emails, or WhatsApps the victim and claims that a particular organization is contacting them to update information. An illustration of social engineering is phishing.

The hacker could additionally send the victim a message with a harmful attachment or a link that takes them to a website where they are tricked into downloading malware as part of a phishing attack.

It could be a fake website that seems just like an actual one, such as a social media site where logging in is required. The malicious user gains access to the victim’s account and password when they do this.

These most recent phishing instances mix social engineering with technology (malicious code) to deceive the target into disclosing critical information.

Prevention Methods for Phishing Attacks:

  • Avoid providing your information to harmful websites.
  • Change passwords often, and pay attention to updates.
  • Use a data security platform to identify attack signs.
  • Take your time to open an email. Verify its authenticity and confirm that it came from a reliable source.
  • Before clicking a link in an email, move your mouse over it to see where it will lead you.
  • Organizations must implement security awareness campaigns to teach employees how to spot phishing emails.
  • To identify harmful URLs, use character recognition filtering technologies.


Denial of Service, often known as DoS, is a type of cyber-attack that overloads a website or application with fake traffic that is more than what it can manage. The website or application won’t be available to authorized users after this attack has been initiated. This type of attack might have several causes.

The goal might be to demand money from the victims. To make a statement, an individual or a criminal group could do it. It could also be used to undermine the operations of rivals. They may be looking for retribution. The cause might be anything. 

Different kinds of denial-of-service attacks exist. Among them are some of the following:

DDoS, or Distributed Denial-of-Service: 

In this type of attack, multiple attacks are launched simultaneously from a network of systems. This action generates several IP addresses, which makes it challenging to fight against this attack and much more difficult to identify the offender.

Application-specific Denial of Service: 

This type of attack is initiated to obstruct the operation of the initiatives, as the name suggests. The interruption will be caused by forcing users to log out of the initiatives or by causing an error to cause the application to crash. Another option is to make a component, such as a database, inaccessible by sending out many requests.

Denial-of-Service on the Network: 

This cyberattack aims to use up all the victim’s bandwidth so that no information can flow through the systems.

Prevention Methods for Denial-of-Service Attacks

  • If there is any unexpected traffic, keep a watchful eye on the network.
  • Do an ongoing check-up on the systems.
  • Keep verifying the responsiveness and operation of the course.
  • Adopt a mitigation strategy that applies to the entire organization.
  • Identify malicious traffic and restrict access to stop a DDoS.
  • It discriminates the malicious IP addresses that are utilized to spread the attack.
  • Deploy anti-DoS measures to secure against or lessen the consequences of DDoS attacks by enabling features and adding tools.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack:

In a man-in-the-middle attack, hackers put themselves between a client’s and a server’s communication system. For instance, your boss recently revealed some private information to you while you were on the phone. A criminal will thus listen to the chat in man-in-the-middle attacks and collect the information you mentioned.

By intercepting communication occurring over an unencrypted WiFi access point, the attacker might execute a MitM. The legitimate parties communicating are unaware that the attacker is listening to or changing the data they exchange.

The man-in-the-middle attack by criminals is by far the most effective. The simplest way to carry out this security breach is through vulnerable WiFi networks and communication cables.

Three typical varieties of man-in-the-middle attacks are Session Hijacking, IP Spoofing, and Replay attacks.

Prevention Methods for Man-in-the-Middle Attack:

  • Ensure to log out of all applications when not in use.
  • Avoid using WiFi networks that lack password protection.
  • Instead of only securing the login pages, use SSL/TLS to secure (from legitimate organizations such as Certera) all the sites.
  • To reduce spoofing attacks, use HTTPS and TLS as your communication protocols. By verifying and encrypting sent data, you can reduce potential hazards.
  • HTML5 use and encryption are recommended.
  • Access Point Strong WEP/WAP Encryption and deploy Virtual Private Network
  • Employ Strong Login Credentials for Routers

SQL Injection Attacks:

SQL attack is one of the earliest cybersecurity breaches, which stands for Structured Query Language. You create queries in SQL. As a result, the attacker transmits a malicious query to the system (a computer system, mobile device, etc.) or a server in the SQL injection threat. The server is then compelled to reveal private data.

For instance, a hacker could create a query that disturbs and uses SQL injection to access your website’s database. The query can then provide all the data, including information on your clients, the amount they paid, and other private data. The terrifying aspect of this cyberattack is that the attacker edit or entirely wipe out significant information in addition to gaining it.

An SQL attack consists of basic data manipulation to access data that isn’t supposed to be accessible. Malevolent third parties trick SQL “queries”—the standard string of code used to contact a service or server—to get sensitive data.

Prevention Methods for SQL Injection Attacks:

  • Sanitizing the inputs that individuals provide is typically advisable. Additionally, make sure the data type given matches the data type anticipated.
  • Keep the database failures hidden so an attacker cannot exploit them.
  • To prevent attackers from exploiting flaws, update the databases periodically with the most recent updates.
  • Use a security testing solution to evaluate the apps to find new issues frequently.
  • WAF (Web Application Firewall) can also identify SQL injection threats.
  • Instead of utilizing prepared statements, parameterized queries, and dynamic SQL, try using stored procedures.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS):

In a cyberattack known as cross-site scripting, an attacker sends malicious code to a trusted website. An attack like this occurs only when a website enables a code to attach to its code. Two scripts are combined and sent to the victim by the attacker.

A cookie is given to the attacker as soon as the script runs. Hackers can use this cyber-attack to gather private information and keep tabs on the victim’s actions.

For instance, if you encounter a strange-looking code on your government’s website, a hacker is undoubtedly attempting to enter your computer using Cross-Site Scripting.

Cross-Site Scripting’s Effects:

  • Several challenges can appear very rapidly when cross-site scripting compromises a web page. Potential issues might be, but are not limited to:
  • Exposed sensitive user data.
  • Attackers stealing internet accounts and using bogus user identities.
  • Vandalism to the visibility of website content
  • ‘Trojan horse’ programs are being uploaded that are harmful.
  • Redirecting websites to dangerous sites

Prevention Methods for Cross-Site Scripting (XSS):

  • Sanitize User Input: Validate user input to detect potentially damaging data.
  • Encode output to stop potentially harmful user data from causing a browser to load and execute it automatically.
  • Limit Data on Users use: Use only when required.
  • The Content Security Policy should be Used:
  • Offers extra layers of defense, and XSS attempts prevention.
  • Often, utilize a web application vulnerability scanning tool to find XSS vulnerabilities in your program.


Malicious software, sometimes known as malware, is used to harm other computer systems. Ransomware, viruses, worms, and spyware are a few types of malware. When you open an attachment or click a suspicious link, the virus will be downloaded and installed on your computer.

The software causes disaster after it has been installed on your PC. The essential elements of the network are inaccessible to you. Your hard drive’s data will be taken. You are unable to use your system. Essential applications like Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel can become non-functional infected by viruses like Micro Virus.

Malware risks include the following:


The virus copies itself and infects software on a computer system. Viruses may attach themselves to executable programs with a.exe extension to create a fake containing the virus.


Trojans are frequently used to create a backdoor to exploit the attackers. As in Zeus, Trojan, and 2007, Zeus is a trojan that targets large corporations like Amazon, Bank of America, and Cisco by disseminating infected files through emails and bogus websites. Zeus is said to have inflicted more than $100 million in damage.


Email attachments are frequently used to spread worms. as in the 2010 Stuxnet worm. In 2010, the Stuxnet was employed in a political strike. There is no requirement for an internet connection because this highly advanced worm may infect systems through USB drives.

Prevention Methods for Malware:

  • The first and most important strategy is to inform consumers of the effects of malware and how to identify it. By doing this, malware can be significantly reduced.
  • Control access to make your network secure and impenetrable. You can utilize IPS, Firewall, IDS, VPN, and other tools as part of it.   
  • You can also use current A/V software to find and remove the infection.
  • Update your software and computer frequently.
  • When feasible, log in with a non-administrator account.
  • Be cautious while opening email attachments or unfamiliar images.
  • Never rely on pop-up windows that request that you download software.

Eavesdropping Attack:

Cybercriminals or attackers monitoring network traffic passing through PCs, mobile devices, servers, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are said to be conducting eavesdropping attacks.

The act of reading or stealing data as it passes between two devices is known as network eavesdropping, often referred to as network sniffing or snooping, and it happens when hostile actors take advantage of weak or unsecured networks. Wireless communication is the most popular kind of eavesdropping.

Eavesdropping Techniques:

As was already mentioned, attackers can eavesdrop using several methods. Let’s go through the several techniques frequently employed to conduct eavesdropping attacks.

Select Device:

Attackers can eavesdrop on targets using microphones and cameras that capture sound or pictures and transform them into an electrical format. The attacker shouldn’t need to enter the target room to charge the device or think about changing the batteries because the device should ideally receive power from the power sources.

Public Networks:

Clients communicating on open networks without passwords or encrypting data create the perfect atmosphere for hackers to eavesdrop. This is one of the most efficient ways hackers can eavesdrop on network traffic and monitor user activities.

Weak Passwords:

Weak passwords make it simpler for hackers to access user accounts without authorization. Hackers utilize various methods to get login access, including brute force attacks, social engineering attacks, etc.

Prevention Methods for Eavesdropping Techniques 

  • Update your PC and software frequently.
  • Whenever feasible, use a non-administrator account.
  • When opening not familiar email attachments or images, use caution.
  • If a pop-up window prompts you to download software, ignore it.
  • Limit file sharing.
  • Ensure your IT or security staff authenticates incoming network packets. S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), TLS (Transport Layer Security), IPsec (Internet Protocol Security), and OpenPGP are examples of standards and cryptographic protocols.
  • Network segmentation divides the network into several parts, preventing traffic from moving between them. People won’t be able to access computers linked to a network with essential data, for instance, or computers connected to a network with computers with typical office papers or other data. The hacker won’t be able to access other network segments if one is compromised.

The Impacts of Cyberattacks

Most frequently, a lack of attention to cybersecurity can result in substantial harm in several ways, including:

Financial Costs: 

These include the loss of company data, the theft of intellectual property, the disruption of trade, and the expense of fixing broken systems.

Governing Costs: 

An organization could be subject to regulatory penalties or punishments under the GDPR and other data breach legislation because of these cybercrimes.

Reputational Costs:

This includes diminished consumer confidence and losing future business to rivals because of negative media publicity.

Considering the nature of these cyberattacks, it is imperative for all organizations, regardless of size, to comprehend cybersecurity dangers and techniques to neutralize them. This involves frequent training on the topic and a working framework to lower the risks of data leaks and breaches.

How is a Cyberattack Carried Out? [Key Phases]

These are typically the key phases of a cyberattack:


Obtaining knowledge about the target network to identify weaknesses and vulnerabilities is known as reconnaissance. 

Maliciously Gaining Access: 

Gaining ongoing access to the target to control and change it remotely is known as command and control. 


It sends malware (a weapon) to a target through USB, mail, or some other method.


It is developing or modifying malware to take advantage of weaknesses found in the target organization.


Exploitation takes advantage of a vulnerability to run program code on the system. 

Security Measures:

Taking measures to accomplish the objectives, such as exfiltration, data deletion, or encryption.

Cybersecurity in the Digital Age: Its Importance 

It is impossible to overstate the significance of cyber security in the digital age. A single security compromise can have significant repercussions in today’s linked world.

For instance, the 2017 Equifax breach resulted in the exposure of more than 145 million people’s data, and the 2018 Marriott breach resulted in the exposure of more than 500 million people’s data.  

These breaches cost the organizations a lot of money and damaged customer reputations. Cybersecurity is, therefore, crucial to protecting organizations and people from the potentially disastrous effects of a security breach.  

You must first comprehend how a substantial cybersecurity system benefits and protects individuals, enterprises, organizations, and other stakeholders to comprehend why it is crucial to learn about cybersecurity.


This article provides an overview of the types of cyberattacks and has given you a solid grasp of them. You examined what constitutes a cyberattack, the most common types, and precautions to take. Knowing about network security protocols and cyberattacks is essential, given the surge in cybercrimes today.


What are the Seven Layers of Protection from Cyber-attacks?

The seven layers of cyber security are:

  • Physical security.
  • Network security.
  • Perimeter security.
  • Endpoint security.
  • Application Security.
  • Data security.
  • User education.

What are the four Cybersecurity Protocols?

Four security measures to protect the hybrid steady state of the new normal

  • Access Management.
  • Authentication.
  • Protection of information.
  • Automated monitoring.

What are the Fundamental Cybersecurity Protocols?

Network Security Protocols: 6 Types

  • OSI Layer 3 – Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) Protocol.
  • OSI Layer 5 – SSL and TLS
  • OSI Layer 5 – Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). 
  • OSI Layer 7- Kerberos Protocol
  • OSI Layer 7 – Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 
  • OSI Layer 7 – HTTP and HTTPS protocol.

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Janki Mehta

Janki Mehta

Janki Mehta is a passionate Cyber-Security Enthusiast who keenly monitors the latest developments in the Web/Cyber Security industry. She puts her knowledge into practice and helps web users by arming them with the necessary security measures to stay safe in the digital world.